Bitcoin Mining Calculator - MiningCave

Litecoin mining!

Since the litecoin community is growing, I've decided to introduce /litecoinmining, a place for all discussion revolving mining litecoins!
[link]

I've been working on a bot for crypto subs like /r/bitcoin for a few days now. Say hello to crypto_bot!

Hey guys, I've been working on crypto_bot for some time now. It provides a bunch of features that I hope will enhance your experience on /bitcoin (and any other subreddit). You can call it by mentioning it in a comment. I started working on this a few days ago. I'm constantly adding new features and will update this post when I do, but if you're interested I'll post all updates and some tips at /crypto_bot. Please either comment here, message me, or post there if you'd like to report a bug, request a feature, or offer feedback. There's also one hidden command :)
You can call multiple commands in one comment. Here's a description of the commands you can use:

Market Data:

crypto_bot 
Responds with the USD price of one bitcoin from an average of six of the top bitcoin exchanges (BTC-E, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Coinbase, Kraken, Cryptsy).
crypto_bot ticker 
Responds with the USD price of one bitcoin at seven exchanges (all of the ones listed above, plus LocalBitcoins). Also lists the average at the bottom.
crypto_bot [exchange] 
Responds with the USD price of one bitcoin from [exchange] (any of the seven listed above).
crypto_bot [litecoin|ltc|dogecoin|doge] 
Responds with the USD price of one litecoin, or the price of 1 doge and 1,000 doge.
crypto_bot litecoin|ltc [exchange] 
Responds with the USD price of one litecoin from BTC-E, Bitfinex, Kraken, or Cryptsy.
crypto_bot [currency] 
Responds with the price of one bitcoin in the specified currency. Available currencies (symbols): JPY, CNY, SGD, HKD, CAD, NZD, AUD, CLP, GBP, DKK, SEK, ISK, CHF, BRL, EUR, RUB, PLN, THB, KRW, TWD.

Information:

crypto_bot [about|info] [arg] 
Responds with a short description about [arg], as well as a link to an external site (Wikipedia, bitcoin.it, and some others) for more information. You can list multiple arguments and get a description for each. Available arguments: bitcoin, block chain, transaction, address, genesis, satoshi, mining, confirmation, coinbase, gox, cold wallet, hot wallet.
crypto_bot legal 
Responds with a chart about the legality of bitcoin in 40 countries, copied straight from Wikipedia.
crypto_bot [explain transaction delay|explain tx delay] 
Responds with an explanation of why transactions may take longer to confirm (the bot specifically discusses spam-transaction attacks in this command).

Network information/tools:

crypto_bot difficulty 
Responds with the current difficulty of the bitcoin network.
crypto_bot [height|number of blocks] 
Responds with the current height of the block chain.
crypto_bot retarget 
Responds with what block the difficulty will recalculate at, as well as how many blocks until the network reaches that block.
crypto_bot [unconfirmed transactions|unconfirmed tx] 
Responds with the current number of unconfirmed transactions.
crypto_bot [new address|generate address] 
Responds with a newly-generated public and private key. This is mainly to provide an explanation of what both look like, and contains a clear warning to not use or send bitcoins to the address.
crypto_bot blockinfo [height] 
Responds with information about block #[height], including its hash, time discovered, and number of transactions.
crypto_bot [address] 
Responds with information about [address], including its balance and number of transactions.
crypto_bot [transaction_id] 
Responds with information about [transaction_id], including what block it was included in, its size, and its inputs and outputs.

Calculators:

crypto_bot calc <# miningspeed> [#][w] [#][kwh] [#][difficulty] [hc$#] [$#] [#%] 
Responds with calculations and information about how a miner would do with the above data (mining calculator). The only required field is mining speed. Order of the arguments does not matter. Everything other than hashrate defaults to the following if not given: w (watts): 0, kwh ($kilowatt cost/hour): 0, difficulty: current network difficulty, hc$ (hardware cost): $0, $: current bitcoin price in usd (according to Coinbase), % (pool fee): 0. The calculator does not account for nor allow for input of the increase/decrease of difficulty over time, though I may add this feature soon. Working hashing speeds: h/s, kh/s, mh/s, gh/s, th/s, ph/s.
Example usage: "crypto_bot calc 30th/s 10w .12kwh hc$55 1.5%" (to make it easier to remember, th/s can also be inputted as ths). This calls the bot with a hashrate of 30 th/s, electricity usage of 10w, a cost of $.12 kWh, a hardware cost of $55, and a pool fee of 1.5%.
crypto_bot number of btc <$amount to convert> [bp$bitcoin price] 
Responds with the number of bitcoins you could buy with <$amount to convert>. If the comment specifies a [bp$bitcoin price], it calculates it with that exchange rate. Otherwise, it uses the rate from Coinbase.
Example usage: "crypto_bot $419.29 bp$180.32" This calculates how many bitcoins you can buy if you have $419.29 and the bitcoin exchange rate is $180.32.

Broadcasting

SignMessage! "" 
Signs a message in the bitcoin block chain in a transaction using OP_RETURN. The message must be less than 40 characters.
Example usage: "SignMessage! "Post messages in the block chain!""
I hope you find this bot useful! Again, if you have any questions or comments, please either comment on this post, message me, or post on /crypto_bot.
Update 1 (June 24, 2015, 17:35): The bot now responds with information if you post a link to a block, transaction, or address on Blockchain.info in a comment, even if you don't call it. For example, if I wrote "https://blockchain.info/block/0000000000000000126448be07fb1f82af19fbbf07dd7e07ebcd08d42c2660cb" in a comment, it would respond with information about block #362,377.
Update 2 (July 10, 2015, 1:59): The bot now has two additional commands: "unconfirmed transactions" (or "unconfirmed tx") and "explain transaction delay" (or "explain tx delay"). The first command responds with the number of unconfirmed transactions, and the second explains why transactions might take extra time to confirm.
Update 3 (August 24, 2015, 1:34): The bot now responds in a better way than before when transaction ids or addresses are posted. Before, it only responded when the transaction id or address was used in a link to Blockchain.info. Now the bot will respond whenever a transaction id or address is posted at all; a link to Blockchain.info is no longer necessary.
Update 4 (August 27, 2015, 3:00): The bot can now sign messages in the Bitcoin block chain using OP_RETURN.
submitted by busterroni to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[AMA]Am petrecut 2 ani și 6 luni într-un centru de detenție pentru minori. ama

După cum spune și titlul, am petrecut 2 ani și 6 luni într-un centru de detenție pentru minori (două, de fapt, și multe alte penitenciare).
Vreau să fac un vlog pe tema asta și sunt curios care sunt întrebările oamenilor și care este viziunea din exterior despre lumea penitenciară.
Pentru ce am ajuns acolo, am scris mai de mult într-un articol pe blogul personal (între timp l-am șters, dar vi-l las mai jos).
Ce e mai jos e doar un rezumat a întregii povești. Sunt multe lucruri despre care cred că ar mai fi loc de vorbit, așa că vreau să realizez un material mai complex despre treaba asta. ama!
După cum scrie și pe pagina „Despre mine”, da, am fost închis într-un centru de detenție pentru doi ani și șase luni, așa că o să detaliez un pic povestea asta.
Făcând un pic background check pentru a se înțelege, ai mei mi-au luat calculator pe la 6 ani. Chestia asta m-a prins, mi-a plăcut și am început să aprofundez. M-a atras în special gamingul și am făcut și ceva programare web (html, css, js).
7 ani mai târziu, în 2012, acasă, plictisit pe Internet. Google „free riot points cards”, la momentul ăla crezând că lumea încă oferă lucruri gratuite pe Internet și că un search pe Google o să mi le aducă pe toate mie, propriei mele persoane atât de importante într-un Internet atât de mare. Click, click, click, pagina 2, click, click, pagina 3, click click, . . . , pagina 8 – „Free carded RP game codes – sitedecarding.com”.
Da, am găsit coduri RP gratuite. Ca idee, punctele RP sunt puncte plătite într-un joc numit League of Legends. Coduri despre care nu știam la acel moment că au fost achiziționate de un tip dubios de pe un site de carding (=fraudă informatică prin instrumente de plată electronice) și care le-a postat acolo ca să atragă clienți pentru serviciile pe care le oferea.
Long short story, mi-am făcut cont, am luat două coduri gratuite, au funcționat. Minunat fiind de modalitatea prin care tipul ăsta putea să ofere și să obțină gratis lucruri care în mod normal costă bani, am început să navighez din ce în ce mai des pe site-ul în cauză (site pe care nu o să îl menționez aici din motive etice) și să învăț despre lucrurile astea. Am învățat cum să obțin date de identificare ale cardurilor bancare online, cum și unde pot să le folosesc, cum să identific și să profit de vulnerabilități ale serverelor online pentru a obține genul ăsta de date și alte lucruri de genul ăsta. Chestia asta chiar m-a prins rău de tot și după ceva timp tot ceea ce făceam în fiecare zi era legat doar de lucrurile astea și încercam să îmi perfecționez cât mai mult metodele de fraudare pentru a obține un profit cât mai mare. Am început cu timpul să obțin lucruri mai valoroase și să fac bani mai mulți, pentru că aveam cunoștințe din ce în ce mai avansate. Comenzile pe care le făceam la început, folosind date de carduri oferite de alți membri ai acelei comunități în mod gratuit după ce erau folosite de ei și prin care obțineam tricouri, brelocuri, abțibilduri și tot soiul de lucruri mici și ieftine s-au transformat în comenzi efectuate cu date de carduri pe care le obțineam pe cont propriu prin diferite metode și care îmi aduceau electronice scumpe, bijuterii și chiar transferuri de bani în valută ori monedă digitală Bitcoin.
Toate au mers frumos, până în luna august a anului 2013. M-am trezit într-o zi pe la cinci dimineața, încrezător fiind că o să înceapă o nouă zi plină de satisfacție pentru mine și gândindu-mă chiar din primele momente după ce m-am trezit ce aș vrea să obțin în ziua aia, având ca referință zilele și săptămânile trecute în care deja obținusem și cheltuisem o grămadă de bani și cu dorința incredibil de mare de a avea și mai mult. Stăteam pe canapea, navigând pe iPhone-ul meu. S-a făcut ora șase dimineața, sună interfonul. Mă duc să răspund, nu se aude nimic. Mă întorc din nou pe canapea. Sună din nou. Se duce tata – „Poliția, deschideți”. Tata a apăsat pe buton, primindu-i pe neașteptații vizitatori în scara blocului și în nici două secunde ofițerii DIICOT Bacău și BCCO Bacău erau la ușă. Cioc, cioc – „Poliția, deschideți sau spargem ușa”. A deschis. Șapte ofițeri în civil au intrat în apartament cu mandat de percheziție și mandat de aducere pe numele meu. Mi-au răscolit toată casa, confiscându-mi toate dispozitivele pe care le aveam și micul depozit de obiecte pe care îl formasem în apartament. După aproximativ opt ore de percheziții, atât în apartamentul în care locuiam la acel moment cât și la casa părinților mei de la țară, am fost prezentat în fața unui procuror la sediul DIICOT Bacău. Menționând aici incredibila dezvoltare fizică a corpului meu (momentan am 1.80m, 54 kg) – gândiți-vă că eram mai scund și mai slab atunci – imediat ce am intrat în biroul procurorului m-a și întâmpinat cu sintagma „Marele infractor NUME AICI. Bine ai venit, ia un loc”. Dacă nu aș fi fost în situația aceea, m-ar fi bufnit un râs teribil la auzul acelor cuvinte. Dar în ciuda circumstanțelor în care mă aflam, râsul nu era chiar primul lucru pe care îmi venea să îl fac. Continuând, după încă 3 ore de audieri, mi-a spus în final lucrul pentru care mă rugasem deja de o sută de ori în gând în timp ce stăteam pe scaunul ăla din birou, cu ai mei într-o parte și avocatul în cealaltă: „Bun, noi am terminat aici. Tu o să te duci acasă acum și o să te chem eu iar altă dată. Ești liber”. Nu am putut să mai reacționez în momentul ăla, am schițat un zâmbet, am dat bună ziua și am plecat. Lucrul ălă, care la acel moment mi s-a părut cel mai bun lucru care mi s-a întâmplat în viața mea, avea să îmi schimbe în mod drastic viziunea despre lume și cum funcționează lucrurile și aveam să plătesc mult mai scump pentru asta.
Mai exact, după încă aproximativ 3 luni am început să fac din nou aceleași lucruri. În astea 3 luni am mai fost chemat o dată la DIICOT și am participat la perchezițiile informatice care au fost efectuate pe dispozitivele care mi-au fost ridicate la percheziția domicilară. În viziunea mea de atunci, am dat cu subsemnatul odată și am stat la caterincă cu niște gabori într-un birou la BCCO, care mi-au cumpărat chiar și o cafea. Ce dracu` s-ar putea întâmpla mai rău de atât?
Așadar, mi-am reînceput activitatea, cu siguranță deplină în faptul că dacă aș mai fi prins încă o dată repercursiunile ar fi fix aceleași, că mie nu o să îmi facă nimeni nimic pentru că ceea ce fac nu e atât de grav și cu un nivel de securitate mai sus în ceea ce privește modul în care făceam lucrurile. Și am continuat în felul ăsta o lungă perioadă de timp, doar că nivelul mai mare de securitate implica tranzacții mai restrânse și posibilități de monetizare mai puține, lucru care de asemenea avea să mă influențeze mai târziu.
Timpul a trecut, și iată că am ajuns în luna martie a anului 2015. Între timp judecata procesului începuse la Tribunalul Bacău și mă afișasem de mai multe ori în fața instanței, eu lipseam de la școală pentru că nu îmi plăcea și nu o consideram importantă, lucru pe care îl susțin și acum dar care s-a reflectat într-un mod negativ în raportul efectuat de Serviciul de Probațiune în ceea ce privește persoana mea (raportul fiind o procedură obligatorie în cauzele cu minori și care încearcă să formeze o imagine de ansamblu asupra inculpatului, mediului din care provine și familiei acestuia). A venit și ultima zi a procesului pe fond și dezbaterea cauzei. Printre multe alte întrebări și concluzii, judecătoarea a menționat și „Domnule Bla, văd că în ciuda insistențelor și avertismentelor pe care vi le-am dat, tot nu vă faceți ceea ce ar trebui să faceți”. Iar lucrul care m-a revoltat cel mai tare a fost remarca morală pe care tot judecătoarea a făcut-o pe un ton deloc neprietenos și pe care dacă l-aș fi folosit eu aș fi fost acuzat că am un comportament neadecvat în sala de judecată: „și eu am avut o fată la școală, chiar în alt oraș, care stătea la cămin și îi trimiteam pachete prin tren. Și chiar în felul ăsta a terminat liceul și facultatea dar nu a lipsit de la școală. Tu ai toate condițiile și facilitățile de care alții nu beneficiază și nu te interesează”.
O să fac o pauză aici ca să spun că respect toate deciziile pe care instanțele de judecată le-au luat în ceea ce mă privește, m-am supus acestora, le-am respectat întru totul și încă o fac. Dar să mi se facă o astfel de remarcă într-o sală de judecată, de către un judecător care a considerat important să compare siutația mea cu a propriului copil și să justifice prin acest mod decizia ulterioară de a mă condamna la pedeapsa maximă admisă de lege mi se pare inadmisibil și mi-a demonstrat cât de multă nedreptate există în justiția română și care e capacitatea în funcție a unor magistrați. NU contează că eu la momentul ăla comiteam din nou genul ăsta de infracțiuni fiindcă ele NU erau descoperite la acel moment și în temei legal nu existau. Singurul motiv pe care doamna judecător l-a găsit la acel moment ca să îmi aplice pedeapsa maximă a fost faptul că lipseam de la școală iar singurul mod prin care a reușit să facă din asta motivul principal în justificarea soluționării cauzei a fost să pună acest lucru într-un context subiectiv și extrem de nepotrivit într-un proces penal. Demn de menționat este și faptul că în hotărârea penală doamna judecător nu a considerat necesar să redea acest dialog, LUCRU CARE ESTE OBLIGATORIU PRIN LEGE CA ORICE DEZBATERE ȘI CONCLUZIE PUSĂ ÎN CURSUL UNUI PROCES PENAL DE ORICARE DINTRE PĂRȚI, CHIAR ȘI DE CĂTRE PREȘEDINTELE COMPLETULUI DE JUDECATĂ, SĂ FIE REDATĂ ÎN SCRIS ÎN HOTĂRÂREA PENALĂ. În schimb, a concluzionat sec, ca și motiv principal al aplicării pedepsei maxime prevăzute de lege: „pentru a avea timp să își termine studiile”. Închei scurt pauza prin a vă spune că în doi ani și jumătate de detenție nu am reușit să termin nici măcar o clasă în plus și asta strict din motive și decizii care nu au ținut de mine ci de sistemul penitenciar și legislația de rahat.
Revenind, după ultimul cuvânt mi s-a spus că rămân în pronunțare peste două săptămâni, ceea ce însemna că în fix două săptămâni de la acel moment avea să se desfășoare o altă ședință la tribunal, fără participarea mea ori a avocatului ci doar a judecătorului și a procurorului, în care urma să fie decisă sentința penală. La momentul ăla nu știam exact ce urmează să se întâmple, dar având asigurarea avocatului și a altor persoane în domeniu pe care le-am consultat, respectiv că „o să îți aplice o măsură neprivativă de libertate, cel mai probabil libertatea supravegheată. Nu ai ce să pățești, că aveai 14 ani când ai făcut faptele, ai recunoscut și ai colaborat, chiar nu are ce să ți se întâmple”. Bazându-mă astfel pe aceste cuvinte, nu am acordat prea multă importanță la ceea ce avea să se întâmple…
Iar ceea ce avea să se întâmple m-a lovit pe neașteptate. În ziua pronunțării, lucru de care nici nu îmi mai amintisem deoarece nu aveam nici un motiv să mă îngrijorez, aveam să aflu într-un mod extrem de neplăcut care a fost soluția dată de judecătoare.
Ora 15:00. Stau la calculator. Vine maică-mea să mă întrebe:
– „Ia vezi, nu a apărut pe net pronunțarea?
– Nu a apărut, nu cred că apare azi că nu le bagă ăștia pe Internet în aceeași zi. Ne uităm mâine”, am spus eu, cu total dezinteres față de ceea ce putea să se întâmple și evitând astfel să îmi întrerup activitatea extrem de interesantă pe care o desfășuram în momentul ăla de a naviga pe reddit.
Ora 19:00. Tot la calculator, plictisit, îmi trece prin minte ce m-a întrebat maică-mea. „Ia să văd eu mă, nu a apărut totuși aia?”. Tribunalul Bacău. Dosare. Număr 3952/110/2014. ”[…] aplică inculpatului minor BLA BLA BLA măsura educativă privativă de libertate a internării într-un centru de detenție pe o perioadă de cinci ani”. Fuck. FUCK. FUCK FUCK FUCK FUCK. O, Doamne. O, nu. Doamne, ce mă fac?! Ce dracu` se întâmplă, nu se poate! Apucă ghiozdanul. Bagă laptopul în el. Uită-te în portofel. 100 lei. Băga-mi-aș pula, ce să fac cu 100 de lei? Uită-te repede pe stradă să nu vină poliția. Ok, nu vine încă. Scrie bilet de adio părinților în care le spui că nu poți să mergi la pușcărie și că o să îi cauți tu. Scrie că îți pare rău. Fugi mâncând pământul că poate să vină garda în orice moment și să te ia. Mergi în stația de microbuz. Ia primul microbuz până în Bacău (la momentul acțiunii eram la casa alor mei de la țară). Ajungi în oraș, mai ai 80 de lei. Îți iei ceva de mâncare și un suc, te duci în parc pe o bancă și te așezi. Încerci să îți aduni gândurile, să pui totul cap la cap, să găsești o soluție ca să ieși din situația asta nasoală, dar oricât de mult încerci nu funcționează. Nimic nu mai funcționează, creierul tău nu poate să proceseze informația în mod coerent și mintea ți s-a dat peste cap, în același timp ai un milion de gânduri și de idei dar parcă capul îți e gol fiindcă chestiile doar îți zboară prin cap aleatoriu dar nu se opresc. Ore întregi petrecute pe banca aia nenorocită, într-o seară cu puțin peste zero grade și îmbrăcat doar cu un tricou și o jachetă subțire. Te culci acolo până a doua zi dimineață sperând că mâine o să găsești o soluție sau că mâine poate nu o să te mai trezești și astfel nu o să mai fie nevoie să găsești soluția.
Referință aici la piticigratis.com. Radu, cel care are site-ul, la momentul ăla avea o rubrică numită „sfaturi gratis”, adică întrebai orice și ți se răspunea. I-am trimis mail în ziua aia și i-am spus în ce situație sunt. Omul mi-a răspuns că fără bani chiar nu am ce să fac, și în orice caz până la urmă tot mă găsesc ăștia. Mi-a spus că da, e nasol la pușcărie, dar nu ai ce să faci, cel mai bine e să îți asumi și să mergi să îți execuți pedeapsa. Până la urmă trece. Mersi, Radu, că la momentul ăla sfatul ăsta mi-a prins extrem de bine și cine știe ce alt căcat aș mai fi făcut dacă nu erai tu cu mailul salvator la momentul potrivit.
Continuând povestea, am mers în piață, am mers la un țigan și am luat un telefon cu 20 de lei. Am sunat-o pe maică-mea, i-am explicat extrem de grăbit ce s-a întâmplat, cât de coerent am putut pentru că încă nu mă obișnuisem cu ideea, iar ea printre plânsetele pe care le avea din cauza faptului că nu știa unde sunt și ce am făcut, a reușit să mă calmeze spunându-mi că nu mă închide nimeni, că decizia nu e definitivă și că poate fi atacată prin apel, lucru pe care deja l-a făcut avocatul. Și pentru a doua oară am simțit că ăla a fost cel mai bun lucru care mi s-a întâmplat vreodată.
Ca să mai scurtez din articol că scriu de vreo trei ore și nu pot să iau fiecare lucru în parte într-un singur articol ca să-l detaliez și o singură zi nu îmi ajunge pentru treaba asta, dar e posibil ca pe viitor să revin și cu partea a doua dacă o să consider necesar – între timp dosarul a intrat în apel, iar în iulie 2017 am fost la ședința de judecată unde mi s-a acordat un nou și ultim termen pentru a îmi pregăti apărarea, cu mențiunea explicită făcută de judecător că „ăsta chiar e ultimul termen. La următorul luăm soluția definitivă”. Lucru care m-a făcut chiar în acel moment să iau propria mea decizie definitivă că nu o să las lucrurile în voia sorții și că o să decid singur și prin propriile mijloace dacă merg sau nu la pușcărie, că nu o să aștept din nou decizia unui alt om în privința libertății și vieții mele.
Astfel că am deliberat. O să fac bani și o să fug. Plec din țară. Îmi schimb înfățișarea, îmi fac acte, fac rost de bani iar după pa și pusi. Mă duce capul cât să mă descurc să fac și bani și să nu fiu nici prins. Gaborii sunt idioți și nu or să poată face nimic.
Deci, am început cu primul pas, să fac bani. Aici trebuie să spun că și până în momentul ăla, cum am menționat și anterior, făceam încă infracțiuni prin internet și făceam și bani. Dar nu îndeajuns pentru treaba asta. Pentru treaba asta îmi trebuiau bani serioși și aveam de gând să îi fac cât mai repede cu putință. Iar faptul că trebuia să fac mulți și repede m-a silit să renunț la unele măsuri de precauție pe care le-aș fi luat în mod normal ca să mă asigur că nu poate să mă depisteze nimeni în legătură cu operațiunile pe care le făceam. Iar lucrul ăsta a fost și cel din urmă care m-a făcut să îmi pierd libertatea.
Menționez că eram și depedent de pariuri sportive la momentul ăla, ca să se înțeleagă.
Apucă-te și fă bani. Propune-ți ca în două săptămâni să faci 10.000 euro. Faci mai mult de 10.000 euro după două săptămâni. „Hai să-i înmulțesc, să fac mai mulți că am nevoie.” Îi joci la pariuri, pierzi. Repetă cu 20.000. Același rezultat. Repetă cu și mai mulți dar fă aceeași greșeală din nou și din nou și din nou. Între timp se instalează paranoia, știi că greșești și știi că asta implică riscuri, că ai putea fi prins. Legea spune că nu au voie să intre peste tine înainte de șase dimineața. Pui alarma la cinci și ai bagajul pregătit în fiecare dimineață, în caz că vine garda ți-ai luat geanta și ai fugit (la momentul ăla locuiam tot la casa de la țară la ai mei – ideea era că eu îi pot vedea venind pe șosea înainte să ajungă la mine și pot fugi prin spatele casei într-un timp de reacție decent, cu un avantaj de cel puțin două minute și jumătate cât le ia să spargă o poartă din fier masiv). Ți-e frică totuși, în interiorul tău ai sentimentul că ceva s-ar putea să nu meargă bine, că ȘTII că ceva nu o să meargă bine. Totuși, stick with the plan. Reușești și pui ceva bani deoparte, pe ăștia i-ai fentat cumva de la a deveni parte din profitul caselor de pariuri. Ia-ți chirie în Berlin. Ia-ți acte false. Ia-ți mașină să te scoată din țară. Toate astea costă și nu ai destul cât să îți ajungă pentru toate întrucât să ai totul pus la punct perfect. Zici că pleci peste două zile, amâni. Vine ziua, amâni iar. „Până la urmă lasă, fac cât pot și cu o zi înainte de proces plec. În ziua când vine condamnarea eu o sa fiu deja ieșit din țară, o să fiu chiar în spațiul Schengen și de acolo mă mișc mult mai ușor. E ok. O să meargă”. Ziua procesului era pe 22 septembrie 2015.
14 septembrie 2015. Noaptea trecută de abea ai dormit, de fapt așa e în fiecare noapte că de mult nu ai mai dormit cum trebuie. Nu mai poți să dormi, cum dracului să mai dormi când știi în ce situație de căcat ești. Faci exact ceea ce ai făcut în fiecare zi până atunci, bani. Dar de ceva timp nici pe ăștia nu mai poți să îi faci cum trebuie. Ai început să îți asumi riscuri mai mari dar banii sunt tot mai puțini. Pur și simplu nu mai merge. Nu mai merge și gata. Nu ai noroc în viață. Stres maxim, nu știi ce să faci. Vine noaptea și te gândești că lasă, mâine o să iasă mai bine. Vrei să te culci. Ca de obicei, intră rutina paranoică în funcțiune. Bagaj – verificat. Bani – verificat. Acte – verificat. Alarmă la telefon – verificat (eu nu mă trezesc fără alarmă. Nici atunci și nici acum). Pui telefonul sub pernă ca să fii sigur că îl auzi. Pui capul pe pernă și încerci să adormi. Mai trec câteva minute – beep beep beep – your iPhone battery is under 10%. „Futu-ți morții mă-tii”. Vrei să îl pui la încărcat, dar ești deja super obosit și parcă îți pică ochii în cap. Nu știi ce să faci. „Lasă, îmi bag pula, nu au venit până acum nu or să vină nici mâine. NU SE POATE SĂ VINĂ CHIAR MÂINE. NU AR FI CORECT”. Pui capul pe pernă și adormi.
15 septembrie 2015. Ora 06:00. Zgomot. Gălăgie. Nu ai timp să reacționezi pentru că primul lucru pe care îl auzi fix în momentul în care creierul tău a ieșit din starea de somn e „Poliția, deschide. Deschide bă că spargem ușa!”. Primul lucru care îl vezi sunt mascații postați în fața ușii tale. Au intrat. Mandat de percheziție și mandat de aducere.
VIAȚĂ 1 – 0 TU
Iar după aceea, am fost dus la Cluj. Reținut, arestat preventiv, condamnat, liberat condiționat în martie 2018. Mai pe scurt, trimis între tot felul de nenorociți, criminali, violatori și așa mai departe, în niște condiții mizere și mult prea josnice pentru demintatea unei ființe umane. Dar despre subiectul ăsta o să scriu alt articol, altă dată. Momentan e de ajuns.
Povestioară scurtă de final: Când au venit băieții de la Cluj cu mascații peste mine, eu am vrut să fac pe băiatul bun care colaborează că poate scap cumva ca și prima dată, adică mă duc să dau o declarație și mă întorc. Dar am dus planul într-atât de departe, încât într-o fracțiune de secundă înainte ca ei să intre peste mine deja m-am gândit la toată desfășurarea poveștii ăsteia în modul mai sus-menționat, așa că am ascuns repede portofelul cu toți banii în pernă și am tras fermoarul gândindu-mă că după ce mă întorc acasă tot o să am nevoie de ei să fug. După ce au intrat am făcut pe inocentul și le-am dat tot ce au vrut cu indicații precise – „da, mai am și un laptop ascuns acolo, mai sunt și telefoanele alea prin mașină, mai am și niște hard-diskuri aruncate pe colo, dar stați să vedeți că vă dau și parolele de la toate conturile mele, uitați, haideți să deschidem PC-ul să vedeți că nu vă mint. Vă dau tot. Da` stați să vedeți că vă dau chiar și date despre ăla despre care știu eu că mai face că i-am luat toate informațiile, e un hacker d`ăsta de prin București” – „Auzi, băiatu`*, da` banii, banii unde sunt? Că știm că ai și de ăia. Dă și banii dacă tot ești tu așa de colaborativ”*. – Stai dom`le așa că banii nu îi am în cash că i-am transformat pe toți în Bitcoin că știam că veniți. Da` nu îi mai vreau, vă dau tot. Vrei să îți dau adresa de la portofelul Bitcoin? Hai că ți-o dau. Uite acuma îți dau datele. Vrei să le și verificăm? Acuma` le verificăm, nu e nicio problemă. Eu sunt băiat serios.
Ăia chiar au mușcat-o și m-au crezut, desigur, fără să încerce să verifice datele pe care eu le-am oferit de la un portofel de Bitcoin care nici măcar nu exista pentru că nu puteau să facă asta atunci, lucrurile astea urmau să se facă pe parcursul anchetei. Urmau să plece din camera mea să continue percheziția și în restul casei. Au ieșit civilii, ies și eu. Un mascat în fața mea și unul în spate. Dau să ies din cameră, mă trage ăla din spate – „ia stai bă așa.”. Se uită la pernă, i se pare că stătea puțin strâmb, după cum chiar el mi-a zis în mașină. Băi, puțin strâmb. Adică PUȚIN. Și stătea așa fix din cauză că portofelul era umflat cu bani. Se oprește, ia perna și o întoarce. Ditamai umflătura. Deschide fermoarul – începe să plouă cu bani. Băi, curgeau, la propriu, parcă era Dunărea când se varsă în Marea Neagră. „Ia veniți colegii înapoi că am mai găsit ceva”. La care reacția ofițerilor BCCO care desfășurau percheziția a fost „ia uite măi, unde era portofelul lui virtual. În pernă.”

submitted by AgitatedBenefit to Romania [link] [comments]

An extensive list of blockchain courses, resources and articles to help you get a job working with blockchain.

u/Maximus_no and me spent some time at work collecting and analyzing learning material for blockchain development. The list contains resources for developers, as well as business analysts/consultants looking to learn more about blockchain use-cases and solutions.

Certifications and Courses

IIB Council
Link to course: IIB council : Certified Blockchain Professional
C|BP is an In-Depth, Industry Agnostic, Hands-On Training and Certification Course specifically tailored for Industry Professionals and Developers interested in implementing emerging technologies in the Data-Driven Markets and Digitized Economies.
The IIB Council Certified Blockchain Professional (C|BP) Course was developed to help respective aspiring professionals gain excessive knowledge in Blockchain technology and its implication on businesses.
WHO IS IT FOR:

Professionals

C|BP is developed in line with the latest industry trends to help current and aspiring Professionals evolve in their career by implementing the latest knowledge in blockchain technology. This course will help professionals understand the foundation of Blockchain technology and the opportunities this emerging technology is offering.

Developers

If you are a Developer and you are willing to learn blockchain technology this course is for you. You will learn to build and model Blockchain solutions and Blockchain-based applications for enterprises and businesses in multiple Blockchain Technologies.

Certified Blockchain Business Foundations (CBBF)

This exam is designed for non-technical business professionals who require basic knowledge about Blockchain and how it will be executed within an organization. This exam is NOT appropriate for technology professionals seeking to gain deeper understanding of Blockchain technology implementation or programming.

A person who holds this certification demonstrates their knowledge of:

· What is Blockchain? (What exactly is it?)
· Non-Technical Technology Overview (How does it work?)
· Benefits of Blockchain (Why should anyone consider this?)
· Use Cases (Where and for what apps is it appropriate?)
· Adoption (Who is using it and for what?)
· Future of Blockchain (What is the future?)

Certified Blockchain Solution Architect (CBSA)

A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:

· Architect blockchain solutions
· Work effectively with blockchain engineers and technical leaders
· Choose appropriate blockchain systems for various use cases
· Work effectively with both public and permissioned blockchain systems

This exam will prove that a student completely understands:

· The difference between proof of work, proof of stake, and other proof systems and why they exist
· Why cryptocurrency is needed on certain types of blockchains
· The difference between public, private, and permissioned blockchains
· How blocks are written to the blockchain
· Where cryptography fits into blockchain and the most commonly used systems
· Common use cases for public blockchains
· Common use cases for private & permissioned blockchains
· What is needed to launch your own blockchain
· Common problems & considerations in working with public blockchains
· Awareness of the tech behind common blockchains
· When is mining needed and when it is not
· Byzantine Fault Tolerance
· Consensus among blockchains
· What is hashing
· How addresses, public keys, and private keys work
· What is a smart contract
· Security in blockchain
· Brief history of blockchain
· The programming languages of the most common blockchains
· Common testing and deployment practices for blockchains and blockchain-based apps

Certified Blockchain Developer - Ethereum (CBDE)

A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:

· Plan and prepare production ready applications for the Ethereum blockchain
· Write, test, and deploy secure Solidity smart contracts
· Understand and work with Ethereum fees
· Work within the bounds and limitations of the Ethereum blockchain
· Use the essential tooling and systems needed to work with the Ethereum ecosystem

This exam will prove that a student completely understands how to:

· Implement web3.js
· Write and compile Solidity smart contracts
· Create secure smart contracts
· Deploy smart contracts both the live and test Ethereum networks
· Calculate Ethereum gas costs
· Unit test smart contracts
· Run an Ethereum node on development machines

Princeton: Sixty free lectures from Princeton on bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. Avg length ~15 mins

Basic course with focus on Bitcoin. After this course, you’ll know everything you need to be able to separate fact from fiction when reading claims about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. You’ll have the conceptual foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network. And you’ll be able to integrate ideas from Bitcoin in your own projects.

MIT : BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGIES: BUSINESS INNOVATION AND APPLICATION

· A mid / basic understanding of blockchain technology and its long-term implications for business, coupled with knowledge of its relationship to other emerging technologies such as AI and IoT
· An economic framework for identifying blockchain-based solutions to challenges within your own context, guided by the knowledge of cryptoeconomics expert Christian Catalini
· Recognition of your newfound blockchain knowledge in the form of a certificate of completion from the MIT Sloan School of Management — one of the world’s leading business schools
Orientation Module: Welcome to Your Online Campus
Module 1: An introduction to blockchain technology
Module 2: Bitcoin and the curse of the double-spending problem
Module 3: Costless verification: Blockchain technology and the last mile problem
Module 4: Bootstrapping network effects through blockchain technology and cryptoeconomics
Module 5: Using tokens to design new types of digital platforms
Module 6: The future of blockchain technology, AI, and digital privacy

Oxford Blockchain Strategy Programme

· A mid / basic understanding of what blockchain is and how it works, as well as insights into how it will affect the future of industry and of your organization.
· The ability to make better strategic business decisions by utilizing the Oxford Blockchain Strategic framework, the Oxford Blockchain Regulation framework, the Oxford Blockchain Ecosystem map, and drawing on your knowledge of blockchain and affiliated industries and technologies.
· A certificate of attendance from Oxford Saïd as validation of your newfound blockchain knowledge and skills, as well as access to a global network of like-minded business leaders and innovators.
Module 1: Understanding blockchain
Module 2: The blockchain ecosystem
Module 3: Innovations in value transfer
Module 4: Decentralized apps and smart contracts
Module 5: Transforming enterprise business models
Module 6: Blockchain frontiers

Resources and Articles

Introduction to Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/cloud/library/cl-blockchain-basics-intro-bluemix-trs/
Tomas’s Personal Favourite: 150+ Resources for going from web-dev to blockchain engineer https://github.com/benstew/blockchain-for-software-engineers
Hyperledger Frameworks Hyperledger is widely regarded as the most mature open-source framework for building private & permissioned blockchains.
Tutorials: https://www.hyperledger.org/resources/training
R3 Corda Open-source developer frameworks for building private, permissioned blockchains. A little better than Hyperledger on features like privacy and secure channels. Used mostly in financial applications.
Ethereum, Solidity, dApps and Smart-Contracts
Ethereum & Solidity Course (favourite): https://www.udemy.com/ethereum-and-solidity-the-complete-developers-guide/
An Introduction to Ethereum’s Token Standards: https://medium.com/coinmonks/anatomy-of-an-erc-an-exhaustive-survey-8bc1a323b541
How To Create Your First ERC20 Token: https://medium.com/bitfwd/how-to-do-an-ico-on-ethereum-in-less-than-20-minutes-a0062219374
Ethereum Developer Tools [Comprehensive List]: https://github.com/ConsenSys/ethereum-developer-tools-list/blob/masteREADME.md
CryptoZombies – Learn to code dApps through game-development: https://cryptozombies.io/
Intro to Ethereum Development: https://hackernoon.com/ethereum-development-walkthrough-part-1-smart-contracts-b3979e6e573e
Notes from Consensys Academy Participant (free): https://github.com/ScottWorks/ConsenSys-Academy-Notes
AWS Ethereum Templates: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/get-started-with-blockchain-using-the-new-aws-blockchain-templates/
Create dApps with better user-experience: https://blog.hellobloom.io/how-to-make-a-user-friendly-ethereum-dapp-5a7e5ea6df22
Solidity YouTube Course: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCaWes1eWQ9TbzA695gl_PtA
[UX &UI] Designing a decentralized profile dApp: https://uxdesign.cc/designing-a-decentralized-profile-dapp-ab12ead4ab56
Scaling Solutions on Ethereum: https://media.consensys.net/the-state-of-scaling-ethereum-b4d095dbafae
Different Platforms for dApps and Smart-Contracts
While Ethereum is the most mature dApp framework with both the best developer tools, resources and community, there are other public blockchain platforms. Third generation blockchains are trying to solve Ethereum’s scaling and performance issues. Here is an overview of dApp platforms that can be worth looking into:
NEO - https://neo.org/ The second most mature dApp platform. NEO has better scalability and performance than Ethereum and has 1’000 TPS to ETH’s 15 by utilizing a dBFT consensus algorithm. While better infrastructure, NEO does not have the maturity of Ethereum’s developer tools, documentation and community.
A writeup on why a company chose to develop on NEO and not Ethereum: https://medium.com/orbismesh/why-we-chose-neo-over-ethereum-37fc9208ffa0
Cardano - https://www.cardano.org/en/home/ While still in alpha with a long and ambitious roadmap ahead of it, Cardano is one of the most anticipated dApp platforms out there. IOHK, the research and engineering company that maintains Cardano, has listed a lot of great resources and scientific papers that is worth looking into.
An Intro to Cardano: https://hackernoon.com/cardano-ethereum-and-neo-killer-or-overhyped-and-overpriced-8fcd5f8abcdf
IOHK Scientific Papers - https://iohk.io/research/papers/
Stellar - https://www.stellar.org/ If moving value fast from one party to another by using smart-contracts is the goal, Stellar Lumens is your platform. Initially as an open-source fork from Ripple, Stellar has become one of the mature frameworks for financial applications. Stellar’s focus lies in interoperability with legacy financial systems and cheap/fast value transfer. It’s smart-contract capability is rather limited in comparison to Ethereum and HyperLedger, so take that in consideration.
Ripplewww.ripple.com Ripple and its close cousin, Stellar, is two of the most well-known cryptocurrencies and DLT frameworks meant for the financial sector. Ripple enables instant settlement between banks for international transactions.

Consensus Algorithms

[Proof of Work] - very short, cuz it's well-known.
[1] Bitcoin - to generate a new block miner must generate hash of the new block header that is in line with given requirements.
Others: Ethereum, Litecoin etc.
[Hybrid of PoW and PoS]
[2] Decred - hybrid of “proof of work” and “proof of stake”. Blocks are created about every 5 minutes. Nodes in the network looking for a solution with a known difficulty to create a block (PoW). Once the solution is found it is broadcast to the network. The network then verifies the solution. Stakeholders who have locked some DCR in return for a ticket* now have the chance to vote on the block (PoS). 5 tickets are chosen pseudo-randomly from the ticket pool and if at least 3 of 5 vote ‘yes’ the block is permanently added to the blockchain. Both miners and voters are compensated with DCR : PoS - 30% and PoW - 60% of about 30 new Decred issued with a block. * 1 ticket = ability to cast 1 vote. Stakeholders must wait an average of 28 days (8,192 blocks) to vote their tickets.
[Proof of Stake]
[3] Nxt - The more tokens are held by account, the greater chance that account will earn the right to generate a block. The total reward received as a result of block generation is the sum of the transaction fees located within the block. Three values are key to determining which account is eligible to generate a block, which account earns the right to generate a block, and which block is taken to be the authoritative one in times of conflict: base target value, target value and cumulative difficulty. Each block on the chain has a generation signature parameter. To participate in the block's forging process, an active account digitally signs the generation signature of the previous block with its own public key. This creates a 64-byte signature, which is then hashed using SHA256. The first 8 bytes of the resulting hash are converted to a number, referred to as the account hit. The hit is compared to the current target value(active balance). If the computed hit is lower than the target, then the next block can be generated.
[4] Peercoin (chain-based proof of stake) - coin age parameter. Hybrid PoW and PoS algorithm. The longer your Peercoins have been stationary in your account (to a maximum of 90 days), the more power (coin age) they have to mint a block. The act of minting a block requires the consumption of coin age value, and the network determines consensus by selecting the chain with the largest total consumed coin age. Reward - minting + 1% yearly.
[5] Reddcoin (Proof of stake Velocity) - quite similar to Peercoin, difference: not linear coin-aging function (new coins gain weight quickly, and old coins gain weight increasingly slowly) to encourage Nodes Activity. Node with most coin age weight have a bigger chance to create block. To create block Node should calculate right hash. Block reward - interest on the weighted age of coins/ 5% annual interest in PoSV phase.
[6] Ethereum (Casper) - uses modified BFT consensus. Blocks will be created using PoW. In the Casper Phase 1 implementation for Ethereum, the “proposal mechanism" is the existing proof of work chain, modified to have a greatly reduced block reward. Blocks will be validated by set of Validators. Block is finalised when 2/3 of validators voted for it (not the number of validators is counted, but their deposit size). Block creator rewarded with Block Reward + Transaction FEES.
[7] Lisk (Delegated Proof-of-stake) - Lisk stakeholders vote with vote transaction (the weight of the vote depends on the amount of Lisk the stakeholder possess) and choose 101 Delegates, who create all blocks in the blockchain. One delegate creates 1 block within 1 round (1 round contains 101 blocks) -> At the beginning of each round, each delegate is assigned a slot indicating their position in the block generation process -> Delegate includes up to 25 transactions into the block, signs it and broadcasts it to the network -> As >51% of available peers agreed that this block is acceptable to be created (Broadhash consensus), a new block is added to the blockchain. *Any account may become a delegate, but only accounts with the required stake (no info how much) are allowed to generate blocks. Block reward - minted Lisks and transaction fees (fees for all 101 blocks are collected firstly and then are divided between delegates). Blocks appears every 10 sec.
[8] Cardano (Ouroboros Proof of Stake) - Blocks(slots) are created by Slot Leaders. Slot Leaders for N Epoch are chosen during n-1 Epoch. Slot Leaders are elected from the group of ADA stakeholders who have enough stake. Election process consist of 3 phases: Commitment phase: each elector generates a random value (secret), signs it and commit as message to network (other electors) saved in to block. -> Reveal phase: Each elector sends special value to open a commitment, all this values (opening) are put into the block. -> Recovery phase: each elector verifies that commitments and openings match and extracts the secrets and forms a SEED (randomly generated bytes string based on secrets). All electors get the same SEED. -> Follow the Satoshi algorithm : Elector who have coin which corresponded to SEED become a SLOT LEADER and get a right to create a block. Slot Leader is rewarded with minted ADA and transactions Fee.
[9] Tezos (Proof Of Stake) - generic and self-amending crypto-ledger. At the beginning of each cycle (2048 blocks), a random seed is derived from numbers that block miners chose and committed to in the penultimate cycle, and revealed in the last. -> Using this random seed, a follow the coin strategy (similar to Follow The Satoshi) is used to allocate mining rights and signing rights to stakeholders for the next cycle*. -> Blocks are mined by a random stakeholder (the miner) and includes multiple signatures of the previous block provided by random stakeholders (the signers). Mining and signing both offer a small reward but also require making a one cycle safety deposit to be forfeited in the event of a double mining or double signing.
· the more coins (rolls) you have - the more your chance to be a minesigner.
[10] Tendermint (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - A proposal is signed and published by the designated proposer at each round. The proposer is chosen by a deterministic and non-choking round robin selection algorithm that selects proposers in proportion to their voting power. The proposer create the block, that should be validated by >2/3 of Validators, as follow: Propose -> Prevote -> Precommit -> Commit. Proposer rewarded with Transaction FEES.
[11] Tron (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - This blockhain is still on development stage. Consensus algorithm = PoS + BFT (similar to Tendermint): PoS algorithm chooses a node as Proposer, this node has the power to generate a block. -> Proposer broadcasts a block that it want to release. -> Block enters the Prevote stage. It takes >2/3 of nodes' confirmations to enter the next stage. -> As the block is prevoted, it enters Precommit stage and needs >2/3 of node's confirmation to go further. -> As >2/3 of nodes have precommited the block it's commited to the blockchain with height +1. New blocks appears every 15 sec.
[12] NEO (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - Consensus nodes* are elected by NEO holders -> The Speaker is identified (based on algorithm) -> He broadcasts proposal to create block -> Each Delegate (other consensus nodes) validates proposal -> Each Delegate sends response to other Delegates -> Delegate reaches consensus after receiving 2/3 positive responses -> Each Delegate signs the block and publishes it-> Each Delegate receives a full block. Block reward 6 GAS distributed proportionally in accordance with the NEO holding ratio among NEO holders. Speaker rewarded with transaction fees (mostly 0). * Stake 1000 GAS to nominate yourself for Bookkeeping(Consensus Node)
[13] EOS (Delegated Proof of Stake) - those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select* block producers through a continuous approval voting system and anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks proportional to the total votes they have received relative to all other producers. At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen. The top 20 by total approval are automatically chosen every round and the last producer is chosen proportional to their number of votes relative to other producers. Block should be confirmed by 2/3 or more of elected Block producers. Block Producer rewarded with Block rewards. *the more EOS tokens a stakeholder owns, the greater their voting power
[The XRP Ledger Consensus Process]
[14] Ripple - Each node receives transaction from external applications -> Each Node forms public list of all valid (not included into last ledger (=block)) transactions aka (Candidate Set) -> Nodes merge its candidate set with UNLs(Unique Node List) candidate sets and vote on the veracity of all transactions (1st round of consensus) -> all transactions that received at least 50% votes are passed on the next round (many rounds may take place) -> final round of consensus requires that min 80% of Nodes UNL agreeing on transactions. It means that at least 80% of Validating nodes should have same Candidate SET of transactions -> after that each Validating node computes a new ledger (=block) with all transactions (with 80% UNL agreement) and calculate ledger hash, signs and broadcasts -> All Validating nodes compare their ledgers hash -> Nodes of the network recognize a ledger instance as validated when a 80% of the peers have signed and broadcast the same validation hash. -> Process repeats. Ledger creation process lasts 5 sec(?). Each transaction includes transaction fee (min 0,00001 XRP) which is destroyed. No block rewards.
[The Stellar consensus protocol]
[15] Stellar (Federated Byzantine Agreement) - quite similar to Ripple. Key difference - quorum slice.
[Proof of Burn]
[16] Slimcoin - to get the right to write blocks Node should “burn” amount of coins. The more coins Node “burns” more chances it has to create blocks (for long period) -> Nodes address gets a score called Effective Burnt Coins that determines chance to find blocks. Block creator rewarded with block rewards.
[Proof of Importance]
[17] NEM - Only accounts that have min 10k vested coins are eligible to harvest (create a block). Accounts with higher importance scores have higher probabilities of harvesting a block. The higher amount of vested coins, the higher the account’s Importance score. And the higher amount of transactions that satisfy following conditions: - transactions sum min 1k coins, - transactions made within last 30 days, - recipient have 10k vested coins too, - the higher account’s Important score. Harvester is rewarded with fees for the transactions in the block. A new block is created approx. every 65 sec.
[Proof of Devotion]
[18] Nebulas (Proof of Devotion + BFT) - quite similar to POI, the PoD selects the accounts with high influence. All accounts are ranked according to their liquidity and propagation (Nebulas Rank) -> Top-ranked accounts are selected -> Chosen accounts pay deposit and are qualified as the blocks Validators* -> Algorithm pseudo-randomly chooses block Proposer -> After a new block is proposed, Validators Set (each Validator is charged a deposit) participate in a round of BFT-Style voting to verify block (1. Prepare stage -> 2. Commit Stage. Validators should have > 2/3 of total deposits to validate Block) -> Block is added. Block rewards : each Validator rewarded with 1 NAS. *Validators Set is dynamic, changes in Set may occur after Epoch change.
[IOTA Algorithm]
[19] IOTA - uses DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) instead of blockchain (TANGLE equal to Ledger). Graph consist of transactions (not blocks). To issue a new transaction Node must approve 2 random other Transactions (not confirmed). Each transaction should be validate n(?) times. By validating PAST(2) transactions whole Network achieves Consensus. in Order to issue transaction Node: 1. Sign transaction with private key 2. choose two other Transactions to validate based on MCMC(Markov chain Monte Carlo) algorithm, check if 2 transactions are valid (node will never approve conflicting transactions) 3. make some PoW(similar to HashCash). -> New Transaction broadcasted to Network. Node don’t receive reward or fee.
[PBFT + PoW]
[20] Yobicash - uses PBFT and also PoW. Nodes reach consensus on transactions by querying other nodes. A node asks its peers about the state of a transaction: if it is known or not, and if it is a doublespending transaction or not. As follow : Node receives new transaction -> Checks if valid -> queries all known nodes for missing transactions (check if already in DAG ) -> queries 2/3 nodes for doublepsending and possibility -> if everything is ok add to DAG. Reward - nodes receive transaction fees + minting coins.
[Proof of Space/Proof of Capacity]
[21] Filecoin (Power Fault Tolerance) - the probability that the network elects a miner(Leader) to create a new block (it is referred to as the voting power of the miner) is proportional to storage currently in use in relation to the rest of the network. Each node has Power - storage in use verified with Proof of Spacetime by nodes. Leaders extend the chain by creating a block and propagating it to the network. There can be an empty block (when no leader). A block is committed if the majority of the participants add their weight on the chain where the block belongs to, by extending the chain or by signing blocks. Block creator rewarded with Block reward + transaction fees.
[Proof of Elapsed Time (POET)]
[22] Hyperledger Sawtooth - Goal - to solve BFT Validating Nodes limitation. Works only with intel’s SGX. PoET uses a random leader election model or a lottery based election model based on SGX, where the protocol randomly selects the next leader to finalize the block. Every validator requests a wait time from an enclave (a trusted function). -> The validator with the shortest wait time for a particular transaction block is elected the leader. -> The BlockPublisher is responsible for creating candidate blocks to extend the current chain. He takes direction from the consensus algorithm for when to create a block and when to publish a block. He creates, Finalizes, Signs Block and broadcast it -> Block Validators check block -> Block is created on top of blockchain.
[23] Byteball (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - only verified nodes are allowed to be Validation nodes (list of requirements https://github.com/byteball/byteball-witness). Users choose in transaction set of 12 Validating nodes. Validating nodes(Witnesses) receive transaction fees.
[24] Nano - uses DAG, PoW (HashCash). Nano uses a block-lattice structure. Each account has its own blockchain (account-chain) equivalent to the account’s transaction/balance history. To add transaction user should make some HashCash PoW -> When user creates transaction Send Block appears on his blockchain and Receive block appears on Recipients blockchain. -> Peers in View receive Block -> Peers verify block (Double spending and check if already in the ledger) -> Peers achieve consensus and add block. In case of Fork (when 2 or more signed blocks reference the same previous block): Nano network resolves forks via a balance-weighted voting system where representative nodes vote for the block they observe, as >50% of weighted votes received, consensus achieved and block is retained in the Node’s ledger (block that lose the vote is discarded).
[25] Holochain - uses distributed hash table (DHT). Instead of trying to manage global consensus for every change to a huge blockchain ledger, every participant has their own signed hash chain. In case of multi-party transaction, it is signed to each party's chain. Each party signs the exact same transaction with links to each of their previous chain entries. After data is signed to local chains, it is shared to a DHT where every neighbor node validate it. Any consensus algorithms can be built on top of Holochain.
[26] Komodo ('Delegated' Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)) - end-to-end blockchain solutions. DPoW consensus mechanism does not recognize The Longest Chain Rule to resolve a conflict in the network, instead the dPoW looks to backups it inserted previously into the chosen PoW blockchain. The process of inserting backups of Komodo transactions into a secure PoW is “notarization.” Notarisation is performed by the elected Notary nodes. Roughly every ten minutes, the Notary nodes perform a special block hash mined on the Komodo blockchain and take note of the overall Komodo blockchain “height”. The notary nodes process this specifc block so that their signatures are cryptographically included within the content of the notarized data. There are sixty-four “Notary nodes” elected by a stake-weighted vote, where ownership of KMD represents stake in the election. They are a special type of blockchain miner, having certain features in their underlying code that enable them to maintain an effective and cost-efcient blockchain and they periodically receives the privilege to mine a block on “easy difculty.”
Source: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoTechnology/comments/7znnq8/my_brief_observation_of_most_common_consensus/
Whitepapers Worth Looking Into:
IOTA -http://iotatoken.com/IOTA_Whitepaper.pdf
NANO -https://nano.org/en/whitepaper
Bitcoin -https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
Ethereum: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper
Ethereum Plasma (Omise-GO) -https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf
Cardano - https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf
submitted by heart_mind_body to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Moving Money Internationally - A case study

Hi guys,
Maybe a week ago I posted here asking for advice on how to move my house deposit to the USA from Australia. Most of the advice I received was to look into bitcoins. I posted there as well and based on more advice made there conducted my investigation and figured I would share my case study with you guys so people also running into this problem might have somewhere to start. DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TAKE THIS AS FINANCIAL ADVICE. The numbers I quote here are wrong from pretty much the moment I post this, and obviously my bank is not every bank, etc...
So, the three options I investigated were bitcoins, a forex website and my bank. For the case studies purpose I will be looking to move a hypothetical 50k AUD to USD, at the moment google quotes the exchange rate as 1AUD=0.89USD. In my circumstance, I wanted to move the money in only one transaction, moving in it multiple chunks was a deal breaker.
Option 1. Bank: The simple choice given at first I was worried about the money getting frozen on the way if one or either banks got upset at such a large amount of money moving. Discussion with the bank on the american side revealed they pretty much don't give a shit. I would need to talk to the bank on the aussie side to move such a large amount in one go (my account was set at maximum transaction limit of $5000 a day).
The maths: My bank would do an international telegraphic transfer for $20 online, seems quite good until you look at their conversion rate (at the time of writing 0.8523)
50000-20=49980 -> 42622.94USD
Option 2: Forex. I signed up with a forex website that looked like it offered good rates. After registering online I received a phone call in about 20min to confirm my identity and check some details. Process involves me arranging a deal online, shifting my money to their bank account in Australia and they do the exchange and send it overseas for me to my nominated bank account. Again I would need to speak to my bank to arrange such a large transfer due to my limits but that portion shouldn't be any trouble.
Great for me, transactions above 10kAUD had no transaction fees ($15AUD otherwise), only the price that they sell the USD to you and that price gets better the more money you transfer. Basically, their only fee is the money you lose by not getting the USD's true price. And their prices were very good after playing with the calculators a bit. Putting in 50kAUD now nets me a lovely buy price of 0.8852USD. Lowering that amount lowers the buy price, raising it raises the buy price. Even so, low buy prices were better than the banks.
50000-15=49985 -> 44246.72USD
Option 3. Bitcoin. As someone who has never used bitcoins before, and never really even looked into it other than understanding what mining is, this is obviously an option that requires a lot of research and setting up on my part. That said, as far as I understood the process it would initially require me to buy 50kAUD worth of bitcoins, transfer to a US wallet for a small fee then sell again. Hence there will likely be loss AUD - Bitcoin transaction (not getting 50k worth of bitcoin for true AUD value) the transfer fee and likely a loss on the US side (not selling all the bitcoin for their true value in USD) just like exchanging money.
I looked at the australia bitcoin website bitXoin - fee 3.7% plus the buying price of bitcoins. My 50K has shrunk to a 483500AUD just from that fee - not looking good. BitCoinTrader next - 5% fee for conversion of AUD to bitcoin. LocalBitcoins violates my rule of doing it in only one transaction so I discarded that option as you have to buy 50kAUD worth of bitcoins off several people most likely.
Going back to BitXoin what would happen if I followed through? At this moment they have 1BTC valued as 1179.96AUD so my 50k (-3.7%) buys me 40.9759652BTC (I have no idea how many decimal places BTC goes to but that should give us a rough idea of the final amounts). Let assume a fee of 0.001BTC (which works out to be about 1AUD) to transfer, I now have 40.9749652BTC in my US wallet.
Next step, sell for USD. Coinbase at this moment have a sell price of 896.67USD which seemed really low! This would mean my BTC would net me 36741USD!!?? BC changer offers 1017.59USD which still only gets me 41695USD!!
Basically, with bitcoin, you will get attacked by buy and sell prices on both ends of the transaction, rather than just one. Next to fluctuations if the price changes which could go well or go badly, your risk. Bitcoin is most definitely not an option in this case study to move money. It may be an option if you already have bitcoins though, because then you only get scrapped on the sell price.
In this situation, even the bank out performed Bitcoins. In real life, I made the choice to go with forex.
TL;DR - Bitcoins are not a viable option in this case study for transferring money from AUD to USD. If you already have bitcoins might be worthwhile but was not considered. Do the maths on it yourself.
submitted by parasuta to IWantOut [link] [comments]

Should I buy a 60 Gh/s BFL asic mining rig ?? All input is appreciated.

Hey guys I have been offered a 60 Ghz mining rig. Its no preorder rubbish. The seller has this unit in hand.
After spending days researching this im not sure what to do. I can pick this unit up for $3300 AUD. Its new and only been used a couple of times for testing. (running time less than 1 hour) I have seen it via a video call & it runs around 59Gh/s on average.
Looking at the BTC profit calculators it suggests the unit should pay it self off after about 4 months. ( i dont expect this to happen in 4 months, I think it will take longer.) I am aware the difficulty in rapidly increasing but still im interested in getting involved.
I have absolutely no faith in BFL and would never buy a pre-order. This is kind of tempting though considering I could have it tomorrow and be mining a couple of hours later.
Im not expecting to get rich quick or anything like that. I am very interested in BitCoin & would consider this more a hobby than anything. Of course I would like to see it pay it self off eventually.
Any thoughts people? Advise?
thanks
submitted by CoinHubAU to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Australian Mining Tax Mini Guide

Hey guys, long time reader here first time poster. Was looking for some decent information online regarding Tax law for Aussies and crypto mining in general and came up pretty empty really. So I’ve made some calls to the ATO and tried to clear up some confusions for myself and thought it might be helpful to some of you here with tax time coming up soon.
For the specifics here I have an ABN registered as a Sole Trader and the implications may vary if you don’t have an ABN but it’s pretty easy to register if you think it’s suitable to you/your operation. I run a single rig currently from home so I’m not a big operator so please keep that in mind.
The rig components:
All parts of your build (GPU, PSU, CPU— all of it) are claimable as instant depreciating assets with the full cost of the items being able to be written off. Make sure you have all your receipts kept orderly, you claim the costs of the components as deductions in the business income portion of your tax return. I believe depending on operation size ($20,000 AUD in hardware costs this financial year) you will have to claim it over a few amount of years but I didn’t look too much into this.
Software Costs:
If you are running subscription based programs for your rig(s) these are claimable deductions if they were incurred as use of generating income. If the programs or software you are running costs you anything, it is generally acceptable.
Electricity Costs:
As I’m running my rig inside my house to work out your eligible deduction amount on your electricity costs you need to try estimate the percentage of the yearly bill can be attributed to your rig running. Plenty of tools available online to help calculate the usage on your rig or devices you can get to meter your setup, another nice little deduction.
Mining Earnings:
When it comes to your earnings, you will need to keep track of an AUD amount of each payout, as well as the date and time of the transaction. Me personally I’m primarily using Nicehash with a bit of XMR mining with a few CPUs with a low payout schedule (couple of times a year) so keeping an active record of my payouts shouldn’t be too insane. Keep records of all payouts as these will help a lot!
Coin to Coin Transactions:
The ATO has yet to reach an official ruling on Crypto-Crypto trades so this is very much on the fence at the moment. From what I’ve read an official decision should be made around the 20th of April to hopefully smooth things out. Here’s hoping we don’t get the US treatment.
Capital gains tax will apply to all crypto-fiat transactions but my interpretation is that when it comes tax time you pay taxes on your income at the time on earning—so the AUD fiat value of your payout at the time of receiving it.
Say you earn
0.01 BTC today @ $10,520 AUD
If on the 30th June that 0.01 BTC is now worth $17,000 AUD you will only be paying tax on the earnings as of the payout. This will of course change if you sell the Bitcoin on the 30th of June for $17k you will pay CGT on the difference between the earned amounts price and the sale price.
Sorry for the poor formatting and I am posting this from my phone but thought I’d do my part to try help someone out. I am not 100% on the crypto sale details but as I find out more I’ll try to get an update. Thanks for your time!
(I am no Tax professional, I do know a bit about taxes but nothing insane, please double check depending on your circumstances and stay posted on the Crypto-Crypto Ruling)
submitted by Trennodude to gpumining [link] [comments]

Of Wolves and Weasels - Day 45 - Breadth and Scope

Hey all! GoodShibe here!
Yesterday I spoke about those off doing great work on our behalf, taking the lead or pushing the boundaries of what Dogecoin can do.
I think today is a great chance for everyone to get a real sense of what's going on here - what a group of 65,000+ Shibes has and is accomplishing as we speak (err... type).
So, please, if I've forgotten anyone, don't feel bad -- especially if you're doing something in another sub -- just let me know in the comments and I'll add it to the list, okay?
Here we go!
Recently Completed Projects
Announcements/Shares
Competitions/Promotions
Merchants
Services
In Progress
Have I missed something? I'm sure I've missed something! I can keep going but I'm already running late for work (got carried away)! Post in the comments and I'll add as I have time over the course of the day :D)
It's 9:14AM EST and we're at 52.53% of DOGEs found. Our Global Hashrate is spiking from ~68 to ~89 Gigahashes per second but our Difficulty is still riding low at ~1027!
Go! Mine! Have fun!
As always, I appreciate your support!
GoodShibe
submitted by GoodShibe to dogecoin [link] [comments]

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fee,.,0.15,.,bitcoins,.,0 25,.,bitcoins,.,0.05,.,bitcoin,.,in euro,.,bitcoin,.,2.0,.,0.1,.,bitcoins,.,0.21,.,bitcoins,.,bitcoin,.,1st august,.,bitcoin,.,1 million,.,bitcoin,.,101,.,bitcoin,.,10 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,10000,.,bitcoin,.,148,.,,.,bitcoin,.,10 year prediction,.,bitcoin,.,100k,.,bitcoin,.,100 dollars,.,bitcoin,.,10 years ago,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in gbp,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in pounds,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in £,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,to dollar,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in inr,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,to euro,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in gdp,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in eur,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,to myr,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in sterling,.,bitcoin,.,2010,.,bitcoin,.,2017,.,bitcoin,.,2020,.,bitcoin,.,2018,.,bitcoin,.,2009,.,bitcoin,.,2013,.,bitcoin,.,21 million,.,bitcoin,.,2012,.,bitcoin,.,2014,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,to usd,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,price,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,to inr,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,wallets,.,2,.,bitcoins to dollars,.,2,.,bitcoins free,.,2,.,bitcoins a month,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,qt,.,bitcoin,.,2 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,2 paypal,.,bitcoin,.,3000,.,bitcoin,.,31st july,.,bitcoin,.,3 confirmations,.,bitcoin,.,3.0,.,bitcoin,.,3 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,3 month chart,.,bitcoin,.,300,.,bitcoin,.,365 club,.,bitcoin,.,3000 usd,.,bitcoin,.,30 confirmations,.,3,.,bitcoins in gbp,.,3,.,bitcoins,.,3,.,bitcoins to usd,.,3,.,bitcoin,.,in euro,.,3,.,bitcoin,.,to eur,.,bitcoin,.,3 unlimited,.,bitcoin,.,3 day chart,.,bitcoin,.,3 address,.,bitcoin,.,4000,.,bitcoin,.,4chan,.,bitcoin,.,4 billion,.,bitcoin,.,401k,.,bitcoin,.,4 backpage,.,bitcoin,.,43,.,bitcoin,.,40000,.,bitcoin,.,4k,.,bitcoin,.,4 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,48,.,4,.,bitcoins,.,4,.,bitcoins to usd,.,4,.,bitcoins in gbp,.,4,.,bitcoin,.,to eur,.,bitcoins 4 backpage,.,bitcoin,.,4 igaming,.,bitcoin,.,4 u,.,bitcoin,.,4 november,.,bitcoin,.,4 cash,.,bitcoin,.,5 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,51 attack,.,bitcoin,.,500,.,bitcoin,.,5 year,.,bitcoin,.,500 000,.,bitcoin,.,5000,.,bitcoin,.,50000,.,bitcoin,.,5 year price,.,bitcoin,.,5 years ago,.,bitcoin,.,5 year forecast,.,5,.,bitcoins in pounds,.,5,.,bitcoins,.,5,.,bitcoins 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submitted by besterse to BestCryptoPlatform [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Calculators?

Hi -- I am in search of a Bitcoin Calculator, if there is one? Not for mining, I am not a miner of bitcoin, what I want is a calculator that shows you how much your bitcoin is worth when it reaches a certain price point, I keep getting "mining" calculators when I search Google.
Anyone have any available options either USD/AUD.
submitted by CleverEmu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Looking for a USD <-> Litecoin Currency Converter

And, not a mining calculator! For an example of a good one for Bitcoin, check out: http://preev.com/btc/usd
I'd love to be able to type in a number and have it calculate the value in EUR, USD, AUD, and BTC
Anyone know of such a thing?
submitted by casualredditreader to litecoin [link] [comments]

ZeroBlock Launches on Android

ZeroBlock combines Bitcoin market exchange data with an aggregated news feed to give you a platform for instantaneous access to everything that is happening in the Bitcoin market. This app allows you to monitor the current Bitcoin (BTC) exchange rates. Free alerts are sent via push notifications directly to your phone.
http://mobile.zeroblock.com/
Features include:
The following exchanges are supported:
*The exchange prices are updated every second.
Android:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.phlint.android.zeroblock&hl=en
iOS:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/zeroblock-real-time-bitcoin/id643184018?mt=8
submitted by zeroblock to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

newbie lurker - some BTC impressions from the non-initiated

Disclaimer: Work in computer field, wanted to take a look at BTC as an investment, or mining it. It was a bit hard to get things going (considering I'm not a PC user newbie or something) and because I came in late, it was disappointing to realise mining without ASICs etc is essentially pointless, unless I mine an altcoin via CPU or GPU (mostly pointless), or perhaps take a chance on a less-adopted purchase like eth. I get it of course though, cheap power, early adoption, increasing difficulty, limited coins. I tried to read up anyway..
recently, I guess the drama with Craig Wright drew me in (I mean, it's quite the tale/effort) - to see what the latest state of things were. I was considering buying some BTC now its come down from the maximum height it was at. I've also been seriously considering buying a chunk of Litecoin, given it mirrors BTC value movements and has a higher quantity (though I worry about its adoption and always being seen as second-rate to BTC perhaps?)
All that said, I just wanted to share some first impressions, from someone coming from Fiat to BTC and trying to make it feel OK. Don't burn me and I know some are invalid...it's just me communicating an initial perception.
  1. The personalities and the basic infighting over the protocol(s). This has the potential to cause loss of value to the currency. This doesn't appear to be resolving. What am I to think? 2Mb blocks, soon?
  2. The delays and problems with the network transaction rate. I want to know I can send the BTC reliably, easily, between wallets or accounts etc. I don't know that right now. The horror stories of no confirmations, stuck transactions (incorrectly calculated fees), and various other extensive delays, are horrifying to someone like myself who doesn't have a fortune to invest (/lose/get stuck in limbo)
  3. Exchange credibility. again let me explain... If a bank exists in Australia it has to meet a lot of regulatory requirements, including guaranteeing customer deposits, holding insurance of various forms, not over-leveraging, etc. This means that the number of actual banks that fail (and result in all customers losing all funds) is miniscule. Mt Gox is hardly an isolated incident. In 2 weeks I've found literally - 20+ current issues happening, from people waiting extended periods of time to cash out from BTC to USD, or BTC to AUD, to $79 just going missing from an exchange account (explanation was bank charges when moving the converted fiat value around). Total loss of access to coins (stolen, shutdown, run). While this might statistically be 'rare' (compared to # of users), the severity when it happens is very high.
  4. As a value store. OK great, if I bought big anywhere before what 2010, I'm rolling in money now, and if I bought big at just the wrong time, I'm only down 70%. In theory that's not bad, from a gambling/probability perspective. However - as a value store, this variability is terrifying. I can put $1million into USD or AUD in a government-guaranteed savings account and feel very safe that this money will retain on the high side of 90% of its value or increase perhaps 5-10% value. The risk of total loss is near-zero. This gives me the comfort level needed to store real value in this way. BTC moving between $350 - $850 wildly with no apparent definitive reason (it's not like a stock where a company has made an announcement and rises rapidly/retains most afterwards), causes me to not want to use it as a store of value. The loss possibility is too high, the stress from experiencing the variance is too high.
  5. The Numeracy of it. $100 sounds nice, it's 100 of something right? $1 sounds OK, it's at least a whole number. It's quite obvious $1,000 is starting to become a lot, and $1,000,000 even more so. This is the reason that when you see a very devalued currency, it seems laughable. Like paying 36,721,941.06 bellarussian rubles per month in rent, doesn't seem 'right' to most people. Because we're used to the metric system. Bitcoin has a problem here for 'everyday' usage. Devs/enthusiasts wildly proclaim No! What! It's just 0.01 BTC! you can divide it up to 100,000 times (or whatever the resolution really is). BTC will reach $35,000 per coin! OK if it does. The problem's worse. 1BTC means I will spend for example, 0.0013428 BTC on petrol today. Does that really sound reasonable to you? I don't think society is quite at the point yet where it's like Black Mirror and we have a huge number of 'credits' on our screen. Even then, I'd want to see the decimal point somewhere else. Working for 3.5BTC per year for example, is not a nice sounding thing. OK sure you say, let's make another unit. Call it... mBTC. It will be 1,000th of a BTC. So in the future when BTC is $35,000 USD, one mBTC will be $3.50(USD equiv). The USD will inflate, more than BTC, since BTC is not inflationary. This potential increase in Bitcoin's value (some argue, increasing forever) means the required Unit for small daily purchases continues to change. mBTC will work for $35k BTC's but it won't work for $350k BTCs.
  6. I'm confused about the security. It's one thing to have a hash-based peer to peer system with an effective crypto scheme - but when the end user of this system, is subject to processes and systems that are by nature difficult to understand, this makes them prone to human-induced insecurity. A little like a highly-complex password policy on a network that results in users handwriting their password on a post-it note. Also at first I thought...Paper wallets (so I'm just printing my keys now? how the heck is that secure unless I lock it up in a safe? this is not security. Can anyone copy my keys and use them?). I don't need people to answer about how paper wallets work because I did end up reading up on it, I'm explaining my initial confusion and questions. Same went for electronic offline wallet systems, versus online wallets, versus exchanges that hold your coins, verus sending them to an offline computer. I mean really. If this was a commercial line of products the product manager would slap the developers and say STANDARDISE! how are you expecting people to seriously adopt this. Open platforms and software can (and should!) still create, drive, and adhere to standards.
Anyway, I digress, I still bought a small portion of some BTC (I mean..I'm not an IDIOT ;p). But - the things I went through - given I already know the general field quite well - and the thoughts, concerns, etc I had, do mean investing in this currency is going to be tough for a period of time that is perhaps longer than some of the estimates I see. I noticed its picking up a lot in the mainstream retail industry (places accepting BTC) which will help a lot. However the sorts of things listed above, do need to get sorted.
As an aside, not preaching here, but there's a reason most commercial companies don't allow their development teams to run the company, and I have to say these reasons are really showing through at the moment in the BTC arena. Just because as a group BTC supporters are generally anti-centralisation, doesn't mean you have to be anti-standards, or anti-organisation. Also to prevent unnecessary criticism and infighting, it's wise for there to be a common public image and an agreed upon set of standards, not this bickering, public infighting, dramatic stuff going on all the time.
Blockchains and their usage is stealing BTC's thunder a little lately too. I hope the BTC players can get things back on track a bit. The problems are making it all too easy for talented devs to go to Blockchain projects and leave the drama behind.
DISCLAIMER2: I apologise for misunderstanding, offensive comments, please don't steal my dog and burn my pet bird in retribution. Just throwing out there first impressions. I know I probably also misunderstand the 'security' of fiat and make many other potentially grave errors, but what I'm doing here, is communicating my first perceptions which I think will be shared by some, and unfortunately, for most people, perception=reality
submitted by travisAU to btc [link] [comments]

Aussies: Q&A with an accountant on cypto tax

G'day fellow Aussies,
All the discussion around crypto tax in the US has got me and probably everyone else thinking about the same thing in their neck of the woods. Fortunately we still have another 6 months to plan for it. Some friends and I have a crypto chat going, and one of those friends offered to email his accountant some of our questions. Below are the questions and answers.
Keep in mind this is just one accountant's take on it, and it was only last year that crypto hit mainstream so most accountants won't have much experience with it yet, or case studies to look at. Also I feel the ATO has done a poor job of providing guidance so far, probably because they themselves are still trying to work out how the hell they're going to manage this. I did see yesterday that the ATO has created a specialist task force to tackle cryptocurrency tax evasion (this Reddit thread has the whole article in the comments if you hit a paywall).
I still have some outstanding questions, particularly around proving how long you have held an asset for (which determines whether or not you get the 50% CGT discount). Bitcoins (and most other cryptos) don't have IDs, only transactions do. If I bought 13 lots of BTC over 13 months, how does anyone prove how long any of those bitcoins have been in my possession? Looking at AUD deposits the ATO could see much BTC I've purchased, but what about what happens after that -- I could have moved it to another exchange, flipped it to something else and back again several times before cashing out. I highly doubt the ATO is going to get records from all the exchanges around the world to verify what has happened in between.
I also have no idea how I, let alone the ATO with the data they have access to, am expected to prove that a particular public key/address belongs to me. Even if I had the private key, that doesn't prove it's mine, maybe I stole it, or someone gave it to me. Are we supposed to take screenshots of our balances on the exchange? Maybe I doctored the screenshot, or stole someone else's login. What about wallets created outside exchanges?
Lastly, as our American friends have pointed out, how the fuck am I supposed to accurately calculate profit/loss on each and every trade? Sure I can easily get the exchange rate for the trade I made from exchange itself (let's say I sold ETH for POWR), but I need to know the AUD value of both ETH and POWR on that particular exchange at that time. Or do we just use some kind of global average for that day? If that value is in USD, which source do we use to convert to AUD? It's just a fucking nightmare and I doubt the ATO themselves know how to answer this. If they did, why haven't they released guidance?
What would be immensely helpful is if the ATO just released a template spreadsheet to record and report on trades, which is linked up to the data sources that they trust. Of course that would never happen.
I use cointracking.info to record all my trades, which gets you maybe 80% of the way there, although I have no clue where they get their price data from and if it would be acceptable to the ATO. There's still a fair amount of manual input and editing required, particularly if you have used exchanges that it doesn't have an import for (e.g. EtherDelta, Gate.io or Mercatox [ugh]). Even those that are supported don't all provide deposits, withdrawals or trading fees.
By the way, I'm not trying to avoid paying tax altogether, I'm just trying to reduce my liability. There are multi-millionaires (which I am not) who exploit loopholes and pay stuff-all tax year after year, so I don't feel bad about not wanting to pay more tax than I have to.
Some resources:
Now to the Q&A:
1. Assuming you have to pay CGT on profits, what happens in the following scenario: I buy $20k, sell $15k worth, and hold my remaining BTC (let's say for argument's sake the remaining BTC is worth $25k). What's the situation here -- do I have a $5k loss? Is CGT relevant here?
A: How long have you held the BTC?; assuming more than 12 months you are entitled to a CGT discount. You would NOT get a $5k loss. Rather, you are selling 15 / 40 (37.5%) of your holding, so the cost base for the transaction would be 37.5% of $20,000 or $7,500.00.
2. Do you get a 50% discount on CGT for crypto you've held for 12 months or more?
A: As an individual you ARE entitled to the 50% CGT discount.
3. Is there any scenario in which I can exchange cryptocurrency for something which I will not pay tax on, e.g., gold?
A: No. Gold holdings are also subject to CGT. The ATO is trying to gain access to records of people who buy & sell gold through exchanges, as they are for BTC, and as they do for shares & listed unit trusts. The “exchange” is a deemed disposal, and you are obliged to report the “sale” in the tax year in which the deemed disposal takes place.
4. Do I have to pay CGT if I 'gift' someone crypto? Is there a limit/threshold on this?
A: A gift is also a deemed disposal of an asset subject to CGT. You cannot give away assets to avoid a taxation liability. (There are limits to gifting assets to attempt to qualify for the Age Pension).
5. Will we be expected to report on crypto-to-crypto trades, or is it simply money in and money out of the exchange itself?
A: The obligation is to report on crypto to crypto trades, as they are all disposals for CGT purposes (same as exchanging shares in BHP for shares in S32).
6. If we are expected to report on crypto-to-crypto trades, given different exchanges trade different cryptos at different prices, how would I value each crypto at any given time?
A: You report on the actual cost / actual sale price incurred by you.
7. The ATO states "This guidance also applies to other crypto or digital currencies that have the same characteristics as bitcoin." Do we have any indication whether or not every other crypto falls under the same rules? For example I could argue IOTA is very different to Bitcoin.
A: They all fall under the same rules; again, same as for shares / derivates; all treated the same way.
8. My friend's father is considering investing in cryptos. According to his finance guy, if he is able to set up an account on an exchange in his Self Mng Super Fund name then he could bypass CGT... He is retired so not sure if this makes a difference.
A: An SMSF that is in pension mode (he is retired) does NOT pay CGT on assets realised to fund the pension……… This is one reason why SMSFs are so popular.
submitted by kingofjerks1 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

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